For this analysis, a coal sample is combusted in an ultimate analyzer, which measures the weight percent of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and ash from a coal sample. The total carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen are determined at the same time from the same sample in the analyzer.
What is the difference between proximate analysis and ultimate analysis of coal?
Proximate analysis parameters include sulfur, moisture, volatile matter, ash, and fixed carbon. Ultimate analysis, which is more comprehensive, is dependent on quantitative analysis of various elements present in the coal sample, such as carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen.
How do you test the quality of coal?
Some of the Common Tests conducted on Coal include
- Calorific value(Gross/net)
- Proximate analysis- Moisture,Volatile matter, Ash and Fixed Carbon.
- Ultimate analysis – C,H, O, N, S and Ash.
- Ash analysis – Al2O3, SiO2, CaO, MgO,TiO2, Na2O, K2O, S etc.,
- Ash Fusion Temperature.
- Coke Reactivity.
- Hard-grove Grindability Index.
What is ultimate analysis of solid waste?
Ultimate analysis informs about the amount of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), sulphur (S) and oxygen (O). Also, thermal characteristics such as heating value, in particular the higher heating value (HHV), are a key factor for the design of WTE plants (Kalogirou, 2017).
Is coal a method of analysis?
1.1 This standard (Part 1 ) prescribes the methods of test for coal and coke relating to proximate analysis including determination of moisture under different conditions. … Besides, the laboratory samples to be used for the analysis of coal and coke, special samples are recommended for moisture.
What is the ultimate analysis?
Ultimate analysis provides a convenient method for reporting the major organic elemental composition of coal. For this analysis, a coal sample is combusted in an ultimate analyzer, which measures the weight percent of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and ash from a coal sample.
What is the main purpose of proximate analysis of coal?
Proximate analysis covers the determination of moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash in coals and cokes, and is used to establish the rank of coals, to show the ratio of combustible to incombustible constituents, or to provide the basis for buying/selling, and otherwise evaluating coal for various purposes.
What is GCV of coal?
The gradation of non-coking coal is based on Gross Calorific Value (GCV), the gradation of coking coal is based on ash content and for semi coking /weakly coking coal it is based on ash plus moisture content, as in vogue as per notification.
How is ash content in coal determined?
Ash yield is one of the most common parameters measured in coal. Ash yield is measured to determine how much material remains (called ash residue) after a coal is combusted. Ash yield is measured directly in an automated proximate analyzer or ashing furnace. Results are presented in weight percent.
What is proximate analysis of coal?
Proximate analysis is formally defined by a group of ASTM3 test methods and is an assay of the moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash content of a coal sample. … The moisture content is determined by the mass loss that a coal sample undergoes after it has been heated to 110 °C under a N2 atmosphere.
Why should a good fuel have low ash content?
The calorific value of a fuel should be high, so that large quantities of heat can be obtained from a small quantity of coal. … It should have low ash content since the presence of ash reduces the heating value of coal.
Why do we perform ultimate analysis of solid waste?
Ultimate analysis is useful during mass balance calculations for a chemical or thermal process. Ultimate analysis of waste is carried out to determine the proportions of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur.
What is proximate and ultimate analysis?
Characterization techniques for a wide range of materials is carried out by analyzing its Ultimate Analysis (C, H, N, S), Proximate Analysis (Moisture, Ash, Volatile Matter and Fixed Carbon) and Heating Values (both upper and lower).
What is coal sample?
Coal sampling is performed whenever there is a need to analyse the coal. Coal is highly heterogeneous in nature consisting of particles of various shapes and sizes each having different physical characteristics, chemical properties and residual ash content.
What is the difference between ADB and ARB in coal?
ADB – Air-Dried Basis. In coal sample analysis, ADB neglects the presence of moistures other than inherent moisture while DB (dry-basis) leaves out all moistures, including surface moisture, inherent moisture, and other moistures. ARB – As-Received Basis. … It provides a rough estimate of the heating value of coal.
Which is not a variety of coal?
Answer: Limonate is not a variety of coal.