Proximate analysis covers the determination of moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash in coals and cokes, and is used to establish the rank of coals, to show the ratio of combustible to incombustible constituents, or to provide the basis for buying/selling, and otherwise evaluating coal for various purposes.
What is proximate and ultimate analysis of coal?
The proximate analysis determines only the Fix carbon, Volatile matter. The ultimate analysis is useful in determining required air for combustion for power plants coal.
What are the parameters of coal sample is determined by proximate analysis of coal?
ranking of coal
…of tests, collectively called the proximate analysis, that determine the moisture content, volatile matter content, ash content, fixed-carbon content, and calorific value of a coal.
What are the methods for the analysis of coal?
The methods for the determination of the total moisture in coal have been placed into the following categories: thermal methods, a desiccator method, distillation method, chemical methods, and electrical methods.
What is the meaning of proximate analysis?
i. The determination of the compounds contained in a mixture as distinguished from ultimate analysis, which is the determination of the elements contained in a compound. Used in the analysis of coal.
What do you mean by proximate analysis of coal?
Proximate analysis is formally defined by a group of ASTM3 test methods and is an assay of the moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash content of a coal sample. … The moisture content is determined by the mass loss that a coal sample undergoes after it has been heated to 110 °C under a N2 atmosphere.
What is the purpose of proximate analysis?
Proximate analysis of a fuel provides the percentage of the material that burns in a gaseous state (volatile matter), in the solid state (fixed carbon), and the percentage of inorganic waste material (ash), and is therefore of fundamental importance for biomass energy use .
How is the quality of coal determined?
The most common classification is based on rank, referring to the degree of coalification that has occurred. The rank of a coal is determined primarily by the depth of burial and temperature to which the coal was subjected over time. With increasing temperature, peat is converted to lignite, a very soft, low-rank coal.
What are the properties of coal?
Other properties, such as hardness, grindability, ash-fusion temperature, and free-swelling index (a visual measurement of the amount of swelling that occurs when a coal sample is heated in a covered crucible), may affect coal mining and preparation, as well as the way in which a coal is used.
What is GCV of coal?
The gradation of non-coking coal is based on Gross Calorific Value (GCV), the gradation of coking coal is based on ash content and for semi coking /weakly coking coal it is based on ash plus moisture content, as in vogue as per notification.
How is coal GCV calculated?
Calculate a) Gross calorific value, moist basis b) Net calorific value, dry basis c) Net calorific value, moist basis d) Gross calorific value, dry basis using Dulong formula. = 32060.2 KJ/Kg NCV = GCV – 24.44(9×%H + %M) = 30630.26 KJ/Kg Thus NCV = 0.955 times GCV in this case.
What is the difference between ADB and ARB in coal?
ADB – Air-Dried Basis. In coal sample analysis, ADB neglects the presence of moistures other than inherent moisture while DB (dry-basis) leaves out all moistures, including surface moisture, inherent moisture, and other moistures. ARB – As-Received Basis. … It provides a rough estimate of the heating value of coal.
What is coal sample?
Coal sampling is performed whenever there is a need to analyse the coal. Coal is highly heterogeneous in nature consisting of particles of various shapes and sizes each having different physical characteristics, chemical properties and residual ash content.
What is proximate principle?
: compounds occurring naturally in animal and vegetable tissues and separable by analytical methods the proximate principles of food are proteins, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts, and water.
What are the components of proximate analysis?
The proximate composition of foods includes moisture, ash, lipid, protein and carbohydrate contents. These food components may be of interest in the food industry for product development, quality control (QC) or regulatory purposes.
What is food analysis?
Food analysis is a diverse and interdisciplinary field of research that has a significant health, societal and economic impact. It aims to characterize food products in terms of chemical composition, traceability, safety, quality, sensory perception and nutritional value.