Proximate analysis is formally defined by a group of ASTM3 test methods and is an assay of the moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash content of a coal sample. … The moisture content is determined by the mass loss that a coal sample undergoes after it has been heated to 110 °C under a N2 atmosphere.
What is proximate and ultimate analysis of coal?
The proximate analysis determines only the Fix carbon, Volatile matter. The ultimate analysis is useful in determining required air for combustion for power plants coal.
What is a proximate analysis?
i. The determination of the compounds contained in a mixture as distinguished from ultimate analysis, which is the determination of the elements contained in a compound. Used in the analysis of coal.
What is the importance of proximate analysis of coal?
Proximate analysis covers the determination of moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash in coals and cokes, and is used to establish the rank of coals, to show the ratio of combustible to incombustible constituents, or to provide the basis for buying/selling, and otherwise evaluating coal for various purposes.
Why is it called proximate analysis?
Proximate analysis is one of the first analyses performed on coal after mining. The test involves heating the coal under various conditions for variable amounts of time to determine moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash yield.
What are the types of coal analysis?
Ultimate analysis: determines amounts of the major elements in coal: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen. Vitrinite reflectance (Ro): determines the relative rank of coal. Volatile matter (part of proximate analysis): determines the amount of nonwater gases released by combustion of a sample.
How is coal GCV calculated?
GCV= 7115.197 – 123.971*M – 81.3121*A + 20.7421*FC, Where GCV in kcal/kg and moisture, ash, fixed carbon in air dried percentage basis.
What is proximate principle?
: compounds occurring naturally in animal and vegetable tissues and separable by analytical methods the proximate principles of food are proteins, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts, and water.
What are the components of proximate analysis?
The proximate composition of foods includes moisture, ash, lipid, protein and carbohydrate contents. These food components may be of interest in the food industry for product development, quality control (QC) or regulatory purposes.
How is proximate analysis calculated?
Since the development of the proximate system of analysis, “crude protein” values have been calculated by multiplying the total nitrogen (N) by a certain factor. This factor was originally 6.25, based on the assumption that proteins contained 16 percent of N.
What are the properties of coal?
Other properties, such as hardness, grindability, ash-fusion temperature, and free-swelling index (a visual measurement of the amount of swelling that occurs when a coal sample is heated in a covered crucible), may affect coal mining and preparation, as well as the way in which a coal is used.
How do you analyze coal?
There are two methods to analyze coal which are called proximate analysis and ultimate analysis.
Analysis of Coal
- Measurement of moisture. …
- Measurement of volatile matter. …
- Measurement of carbon and ash. …
- Proximate analysis. …
- Fixed carbon. …
- Volatile matter. …
- Ash content. …
- Moisture content.
Is coal a method of analysis?
1.1 This standard (Part 1 ) prescribes the methods of test for coal and coke relating to proximate analysis including determination of moisture under different conditions. … Besides, the laboratory samples to be used for the analysis of coal and coke, special samples are recommended for moisture.
What is the major problem with proximate analysis?
The crude fiber procedure has many sources of error and, therefore, is the most unsatisfactory principle of proximate analysis. The primary source of error is that the acidic and basic solutions solubilize some of the true fiber, therefore the procedure underestimates true fiber content of the feedstuff.
What is ultimate analysis of fuel?
Ultimate analysis for solid fuels includes moisture, ash, sulfur, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen by difference. Ultimate analysis test samples are easily shipped to the labs for rapid, reliable testing.
What is the meaning of proximate?
rather than ultimate, goals