What is GAR in coal?

GAR – Gross As Received. Thermal coal is quoted on a GAR basis, except for Europe/ARA, Richards Bay 6,000 kcal/kg, and Japan and Korea West CIF, which are quoted on a NAR (Net As Received) basis. … It provides a rough estimate of the heating value of coal.

What is the GCV of coal?

The gradation of non-coking coal is based on Gross Calorific Value (GCV), the gradation of coking coal is based on ash content and for semi coking /weakly coking coal it is based on ash plus moisture content, as in vogue as per notification.

How do you calculate coal GCV?

  1. GCV of coal in Kcal/Kg = (355 x C + 1148 x H + 95 x S – 145 X O) / 4.1868.
  2. C, H, S, O are % figures obtained in the ultimate analysis of coal.
  3. Caloric value obtained by calorimeter is the only correct value and gives GCV.

How do you convert GCV to NCV?

Calculate a) Gross calorific value, moist basis b) Net calorific value, dry basis c) Net calorific value, moist basis d) Gross calorific value, dry basis using Dulong formula. = 32060.2 KJ/Kg NCV = GCV – 24.44(9×%H + %M) = 30630.26 KJ/Kg Thus NCV = 0.955 times GCV in this case.

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What are the 4 grades of coal?

Coal is classified into four main types, or ranks: anthracite, bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite.

Which is highest grade of coal?

Anthracite

How do you calculate coal?

Since coal has a heat value of 20,000 kJ/kg, for producing one kw.hr we require (10765 / 20000) 0.538 kg of coal. This translates to (0.538 x 100 x 1,000) 53800 kg/hr (53.8 T/hr) of coal for an output of 100 MW.

What is the difference between ADB and ARB in coal?

ADB – Air-Dried Basis. In coal sample analysis, ADB neglects the presence of moistures other than inherent moisture while DB (dry-basis) leaves out all moistures, including surface moisture, inherent moisture, and other moistures. ARB – As-Received Basis. … It provides a rough estimate of the heating value of coal.

What is the difference between GCV and NCV of coal?

Gross calorific value (GCV) is the amount of heat released by the complete combustion of a unit of natural gas. … Net Calorific Value (NCV) also known as lower heating value (LHV) or lower calorific value (LCV) is determined by the subtracting the heat of vaporization of the water vapour from the higher heating value.

How do you calculate GCV?

Net Calorific Value (NCV) or lower heating value (LHV) or lower calorific value (LCV) is determined by subtracting the heat of vaporization of the water vapour from the higher heating value. It assumes water vapour leaves with the combustion products without fully being condensed. Fuel should be purchased based on NCV.

How calorific value is calculated?

It assumes all water vapour produced during the combustion process is fully condensed. Net Calorific Value (NCV) means lower heating value (LHV) i.e. lower calorific value (LCV) is determined by the subtraction of heat of vaporization of the water vapour from the higher heating value.

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How do you calculate LCV and HCV?

  1. If the percentage (%) of Hydrogen (H) is given.
  2. LCV = [ HCV – 9H/100 x 587] kcal/kg.
  3. = [HCV – 0.09 H x 587] kcal/kg.

Which country has the cleanest coal?

Russia’s

What is the youngest form of coal?

Lignite

Can you burn coal cleanly?

Coal cleaning by ‘washing’ has been standard practice in developed countries for some time. It reduces emissions of ash and sulfur dioxide when the coal is burned. Electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters can remove 99% of the fly ash from the flue gases – these technologies are in widespread use.

Coal mine