Proximate analysis is formally defined by a group of ASTM3 test methods and is an assay of the moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash content of a coal sample. … The moisture content is determined by the mass loss that a coal sample undergoes after it has been heated to 110 °C under a N2 atmosphere.
What is the meaning of proximate analysis?
i. The determination of the compounds contained in a mixture as distinguished from ultimate analysis, which is the determination of the elements contained in a compound. Used in the analysis of coal.
What is the main purpose of proximate analysis of coal?
Proximate analysis covers the determination of moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash in coals and cokes, and is used to establish the rank of coals, to show the ratio of combustible to incombustible constituents, or to provide the basis for buying/selling, and otherwise evaluating coal for various purposes.
How proximate analysis of coal is done?
Proximate analysis is one of the first analyses performed on coal after mining. The test involves heating the coal under various conditions for variable amounts of time to determine moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash yield. … Moreover, moisture can also affect the way the coal is fed into the gasifier.
What is proximate and ultimate analysis of coal?
The proximate analysis determines only the Fix carbon, Volatile matter. The ultimate analysis is useful in determining required air for combustion for power plants coal.
What is the purpose of proximate analysis?
Proximate analysis refers to the quantitative analysis of macromolecules in food. A combination of different techniques, such as extraction, Kjeldahl, NIR are used to determine protein, fat, moisture, ash and carbohydrates levels. With the guidebook, benefit from: A decision tree for selecting fat extraction equipment.
What is proximate principle?
: compounds occurring naturally in animal and vegetable tissues and separable by analytical methods the proximate principles of food are proteins, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts, and water.
What are 4 types of coal?
Coal is classified into four main types, or ranks: anthracite, bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite. The ranking depends on the types and amounts of carbon the coal contains and on the amount of heat energy the coal can produce.
What are the types of analysis of coal?
Some of the Common Tests conducted on Coal include
- Calorific value(Gross/net)
- Proximate analysis- Moisture,Volatile matter, Ash and Fixed Carbon.
- Ultimate analysis – C,H, O, N, S and Ash.
- Ash analysis – Al2O3, SiO2, CaO, MgO,TiO2, Na2O, K2O, S etc.,
- Ash Fusion Temperature.
- Coke Reactivity.
- Hard-grove Grindability Index.
What are the properties of coal?
Other properties, such as hardness, grindability, ash-fusion temperature, and free-swelling index (a visual measurement of the amount of swelling that occurs when a coal sample is heated in a covered crucible), may affect coal mining and preparation, as well as the way in which a coal is used.
How do you analyze coal?
There are two methods to analyze coal which are called proximate analysis and ultimate analysis.
Analysis of Coal
- Measurement of moisture. …
- Measurement of volatile matter. …
- Measurement of carbon and ash. …
- Proximate analysis. …
- Fixed carbon. …
- Volatile matter. …
- Ash content. …
- Moisture content.
What are the components of proximate analysis?
The proximate composition of foods includes moisture, ash, lipid, protein and carbohydrate contents. These food components may be of interest in the food industry for product development, quality control (QC) or regulatory purposes.
What is the GCV of coal?
The gradation of non-coking coal is based on Gross Calorific Value (GCV), the gradation of coking coal is based on ash content and for semi coking /weakly coking coal it is based on ash plus moisture content, as in vogue as per notification.
What is ultimate analysis of fuel?
Ultimate analysis for solid fuels includes moisture, ash, sulfur, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen by difference. Ultimate analysis test samples are easily shipped to the labs for rapid, reliable testing.
What is the difference between proximate and ultimate analysis of coal?
Answer. Proximate analysis parameters include sulfur, moisture, volatile matter, ash, and fixed carbon. Ultimate analysis, which is more comprehensive, is dependent on quantitative analysis of various elements present in the coal sample, such as carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen.
How do you calculate moisture in coal?
Total moisture =X+Y*(1-X/100), Where, X: percentage loss in mass of original in air-drying, Y: percentage loss in mass of air dried sample on oven drying.