Proximate analysis is one of the first analyses performed on coal after mining. The test involves heating the coal under various conditions for variable amounts of time to determine moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash yield.
What is the proximate analysis of coal?
Proximate analysis covers the determination of moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash in coals and cokes, and is used to establish the rank of coals, to show the ratio of combustible to incombustible constituents, or to provide the basis for buying/selling, and otherwise evaluating coal for various purposes.
How do you calculate proximate analysis of coal?
Proximate coal analysis
- Determination of volatile matter is carried out by taking a weighed fresh sample of coal and is placed in the covered crucible and is heated in the furnace at 900 plus minus 15-degree centigrade.
- The sample is cooled and weighed.
- The loss of weight represents Moisture+ Volatile matter.
How is coal analyzed?
Ultimate analysis: determines amounts of the major elements in coal: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen. Vitrinite reflectance (Ro): determines the relative rank of coal. Volatile matter (part of proximate analysis): determines the amount of nonwater gases released by combustion of a sample.
What is the proximate analysis?
Proximate analysis refers to the quantitative analysis of macromolecules in food. A combination of different techniques, such as extraction, Kjeldahl, NIR are used to determine protein, fat, moisture, ash and carbohydrates levels.
Which is the best type of coal?
What are the types of coal?
- Anthracite: The highest rank of coal. …
- Bituminous: Bituminous coal is a middle rank coal between subbituminous and anthracite. …
- Subbituminous: Subbituminous coal is black in color and dull (not shiny), and has a higher heating value than lignite.
What are the properties of coal?
Other properties, such as hardness, grindability, ash-fusion temperature, and free-swelling index (a visual measurement of the amount of swelling that occurs when a coal sample is heated in a covered crucible), may affect coal mining and preparation, as well as the way in which a coal is used.
What are the types of analysis of coal?
Some of the Common Tests conducted on Coal include
- Calorific value(Gross/net)
- Proximate analysis- Moisture,Volatile matter, Ash and Fixed Carbon.
- Ultimate analysis – C,H, O, N, S and Ash.
- Ash analysis – Al2O3, SiO2, CaO, MgO,TiO2, Na2O, K2O, S etc.,
- Ash Fusion Temperature.
- Coke Reactivity.
- Hard-grove Grindability Index.
What are the 4 grades of coal?
Coal is classified into four main types, or ranks: anthracite, bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite.
What are the components of proximate analysis?
The proximate composition of foods includes moisture, ash, lipid, protein and carbohydrate contents. These food components may be of interest in the food industry for product development, quality control (QC) or regulatory purposes.
How is coal formed?
Coal is mostly carbon with variable amounts of other elements; chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen. Coal is formed when dead plant matter decays into peat and is converted into coal by the heat and pressure of deep burial over millions of years.
Is coal testing a method?
1.1 This standard (Part 1 ) prescribes the methods of test for coal and coke relating to proximate analysis including determination of moisture under different conditions. … Besides, the laboratory samples to be used for the analysis of coal and coke, special samples are recommended for moisture.
How can you tell the quality of coal?
Due to the fact that coal is typically used as fuel the calorific value is ideal to give a first impression of the product quality. For a first (“proximate”) analysis of coal, the calorific value, ash, moisture, and volatile content are measured. Based on these data the so-called fixed carbon content is calculated.
What is proximate principle?
: compounds occurring naturally in animal and vegetable tissues and separable by analytical methods the proximate principles of food are proteins, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts, and water.
How is proximate analysis calculated?
NFE is determined by mathematical calculation. It is obtained by subtracting the sum of percentages of all the nutrients already determined from 100. %NFE = 100-(%moisture + %CF + %CP + %EE + %Ash) NFE represents soluble carbohydrates and other digestible and easily utilizable non-nitrogenous substances in feed.
What is the major problem with proximate analysis?
The crude fiber procedure has many sources of error and, therefore, is the most unsatisfactory principle of proximate analysis. The primary source of error is that the acidic and basic solutions solubilize some of the true fiber, therefore the procedure underestimates true fiber content of the feedstuff.