What is the proximate analysis of coal?
Proximate analysis covers the determination of moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash in coals and cokes, and is used to establish the rank of coals, to show the ratio of combustible to incombustible constituents, or to provide the basis for buying/selling, and otherwise evaluating coal for various purposes.
How is proximate analysis calculated?
NFE is determined by mathematical calculation. It is obtained by subtracting the sum of percentages of all the nutrients already determined from 100. %NFE = 100-(%moisture + %CF + %CP + %EE + %Ash) NFE represents soluble carbohydrates and other digestible and easily utilizable non-nitrogenous substances in feed.
How do you analyze coal?
There are two methods to analyze coal which are called proximate analysis and ultimate analysis.
Analysis of Coal
- Measurement of moisture. …
- Measurement of volatile matter. …
- Measurement of carbon and ash. …
- Proximate analysis. …
- Fixed carbon. …
- Volatile matter. …
- Ash content. …
- Moisture content.
How do you calculate volatile matter in coal?
It is measured as the weight percent of gas (emissions) from a coal sample that is released during heating to 950 C° in an oxygen-free environment , except for moisture (which will evaporate as water vapor), at a standardized temperature. Volatile matter is measured directly in the automated proximate analyzer.
What are the types of analysis of coal?
Some of the Common Tests conducted on Coal include
- Calorific value(Gross/net)
- Proximate analysis- Moisture,Volatile matter, Ash and Fixed Carbon.
- Ultimate analysis – C,H, O, N, S and Ash.
- Ash analysis – Al2O3, SiO2, CaO, MgO,TiO2, Na2O, K2O, S etc.,
- Ash Fusion Temperature.
- Coke Reactivity.
- Hard-grove Grindability Index.
Which is the best type of coal?
What are the types of coal?
- Anthracite: The highest rank of coal. …
- Bituminous: Bituminous coal is a middle rank coal between subbituminous and anthracite. …
- Subbituminous: Subbituminous coal is black in color and dull (not shiny), and has a higher heating value than lignite.
What are the components of proximate analysis?
The proximate composition of foods includes moisture, ash, lipid, protein and carbohydrate contents. These food components may be of interest in the food industry for product development, quality control (QC) or regulatory purposes.
What is the proximate analysis?
Proximate analysis refers to the quantitative analysis of macromolecules in food. A combination of different techniques, such as extraction, Kjeldahl, NIR are used to determine protein, fat, moisture, ash and carbohydrates levels.
Why do we carry out proximate analysis?
The Importance of Proximate Analysis
“Proximate analysis” is of key commercial concern as food-manufacturing companies need to ensure that their products meet the appropriate laws and legal declaration requirements as well as the safety aspects of the end products when released to the end consumer.
What is the difference between ADB and ARB in coal?
ADB – Air-Dried Basis. In coal sample analysis, ADB neglects the presence of moistures other than inherent moisture while DB (dry-basis) leaves out all moistures, including surface moisture, inherent moisture, and other moistures. ARB – As-Received Basis. … It provides a rough estimate of the heating value of coal.
How do you calculate ash content in coal?
- Tables 1-3. Table 1 – Laboratory. Temperature. Humidity. Table 2 – Heating / Drying. …
- Calculate the percent ash in the sample as follows: % Ash (uncorrected) = W3 – W1 x 100. W2. …
- Calculate the percent ash to “moisture free” (MF) as follows: % Ash (MF) = % Ash (AR) x 100. 100 – % AR moisture.
Is standard for coal sampling?
The testing and analysis of coal sample is carried out at coal testing Labs, selected by Third Party, as per as per BIS Standards (IS: 1350 Part 1-1984) or BIS Standards (IS: 1350 Part-II-1970). The determination of Ash, moisture and GCV is done on equilibrated moisture basis.
What is volatile material?
Volatility describes how easily a substance will vaporize (turn into a gas or vapor). A volatile substance can be defined as (1) a substance that evaporates readily at normal temperatures and/or (2) one that has a measurable vapor pressure. The term volatile usually applies to liquids.
What is the temperature for determination of volatile matter?
Volatile matter is determined as the loss in mass, less that due to moisture, when a sample is heated at 900 degrees Celsius for a period of 7 minutes. This procedure is undertaken out of contact with air under standardised conditions.
What is the effect of volatile matter in coal?
The volatile content has a positive effect on the volatilization rate of arsenic in the initial stage of combustion. With the same level of ash content, high-volatile coals (>30%) own a larger volatilization rate of arsenic (0.55–0.6% s–1) than the low-volatile coals (<12%) (0.25% s–1).