Proximate analysis covers the determination of moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash in coals and cokes, and is used to establish the rank of coals, to show the ratio of combustible to incombustible constituents, or to provide the basis for buying/selling, and otherwise evaluating coal for various purposes.
What is the purpose of proximate analysis?
Proximate analysis of a fuel provides the percentage of the material that burns in a gaseous state (volatile matter), in the solid state (fixed carbon), and the percentage of inorganic waste material (ash), and is therefore of fundamental importance for biomass energy use .
What does proximate analysis mean?
i. The determination of the compounds contained in a mixture as distinguished from ultimate analysis, which is the determination of the elements contained in a compound. Used in the analysis of coal.
What is ultimate and proximate analysis of coal?
The proximate analysis determines only the Fix carbon, Volatile matter. The ultimate analysis is useful in determining required air for combustion for power plants coal.
What are the types of analysis of coal?
Some of the Common Tests conducted on Coal include
- Calorific value(Gross/net)
- Proximate analysis- Moisture,Volatile matter, Ash and Fixed Carbon.
- Ultimate analysis – C,H, O, N, S and Ash.
- Ash analysis – Al2O3, SiO2, CaO, MgO,TiO2, Na2O, K2O, S etc.,
- Ash Fusion Temperature.
- Coke Reactivity.
- Hard-grove Grindability Index.
What is proximate principle?
: compounds occurring naturally in animal and vegetable tissues and separable by analytical methods the proximate principles of food are proteins, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts, and water.
What are the components of proximate analysis?
The proximate composition of foods includes moisture, ash, lipid, protein and carbohydrate contents. These food components may be of interest in the food industry for product development, quality control (QC) or regulatory purposes.
What is the major problem with proximate analysis?
The crude fiber procedure has many sources of error and, therefore, is the most unsatisfactory principle of proximate analysis. The primary source of error is that the acidic and basic solutions solubilize some of the true fiber, therefore the procedure underestimates true fiber content of the feedstuff.
Why do we need to get the proximate analysis of nutrients?
This is to ensure that consumers are well aware of the nutritional composition of foods so that they can make informed and knowledgeable decisions about their diet. Additionally they serve as means to create suitable conditions for fair market competition between food companies.
What is the difference between proximate and ultimate analysis?
Proximate analysis parameters include sulfur, moisture, volatile matter, ash, and fixed carbon. Ultimate analysis, which is more comprehensive, is dependent on quantitative analysis of various elements present in the coal sample, such as carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen.
How is coal GCV calculated?
GCV= 7115.197 – 123.971*M – 81.3121*A + 20.7421*FC, Where GCV in kcal/kg and moisture, ash, fixed carbon in air dried percentage basis.
What is ultimate analysis of fuel?
Ultimate analysis for solid fuels includes moisture, ash, sulfur, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen by difference. Ultimate analysis test samples are easily shipped to the labs for rapid, reliable testing.
How do you calculate moisture in coal?
Total moisture =X+Y*(1-X/100), Where, X: percentage loss in mass of original in air-drying, Y: percentage loss in mass of air dried sample on oven drying.
What are 4 types of coal?
Coal is classified into four main types, or ranks: anthracite, bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite. The ranking depends on the types and amounts of carbon the coal contains and on the amount of heat energy the coal can produce.
How do you analyze coal?
There are two methods to analyze coal which are called proximate analysis and ultimate analysis.
Analysis of Coal
- Measurement of moisture. …
- Measurement of volatile matter. …
- Measurement of carbon and ash. …
- Proximate analysis. …
- Fixed carbon. …
- Volatile matter. …
- Ash content. …
- Moisture content.
How do you know the grade of coal?
The gradation of non-coking coal is based on Gross Calorific Value (GCV), the gradation of coking coal is based on ash content and for semi coking /weakly coking coal it is based on ash plus moisture content, as in vogue as per notification.