Ultimate analysis tests produce more comprehensive results than the proximate analyses. SGS uses the results from ultimate analysis tests to determine the elemental composition of the coal including moisture, ash, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen (by difference).
What is the ultimate analysis of coal?
Ultimate analysis provides a convenient method for reporting the major organic elemental composition of coal. For this analysis, a coal sample is combusted in an ultimate analyzer, which measures the weight percent of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and ash from a coal sample.
What is the main purpose of proximate analysis of coal?
Proximate analysis covers the determination of moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash in coals and cokes, and is used to establish the rank of coals, to show the ratio of combustible to incombustible constituents, or to provide the basis for buying/selling, and otherwise evaluating coal for various purposes.
What is ultimate analysis of fuel?
Ultimate analysis for solid fuels includes moisture, ash, sulfur, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen by difference. Ultimate analysis test samples are easily shipped to the labs for rapid, reliable testing.
What is the difference between proximate analysis and ultimate analysis of coal?
Proximate analysis parameters include sulfur, moisture, volatile matter, ash, and fixed carbon. Ultimate analysis, which is more comprehensive, is dependent on quantitative analysis of various elements present in the coal sample, such as carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen.
How do you know if carbon is fixed in coal?
Fixed carbon is the solid combustible residue that remains after a coal particle is heated and the volatile matter is expelled. The fixed-carbon content of a coal is determined by subtracting the percentages of moisture, volatile matter, and ash from a sample.
What are the types of coal analysis?
Ultimate analysis: determines amounts of the major elements in coal: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen. Vitrinite reflectance (Ro): determines the relative rank of coal. Volatile matter (part of proximate analysis): determines the amount of nonwater gases released by combustion of a sample.
What are 4 types of coal?
Coal is classified into four main types, or ranks: anthracite, bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite. The ranking depends on the types and amounts of carbon the coal contains and on the amount of heat energy the coal can produce.
What are the properties of coal?
Other properties, such as hardness, grindability, ash-fusion temperature, and free-swelling index (a visual measurement of the amount of swelling that occurs when a coal sample is heated in a covered crucible), may affect coal mining and preparation, as well as the way in which a coal is used.
How proximate analysis of coal is done?
Proximate analysis is one of the first analyses performed on coal after mining. The test involves heating the coal under various conditions for variable amounts of time to determine moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash yield. … Moreover, moisture can also affect the way the coal is fed into the gasifier.
Which is not found in coal?
The process of heating coal in the absence of air is called the destructive distillation of coal. Coal contains a number of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur.
Why should a good fuel have low ash content?
The calorific value of a fuel should be high, so that large quantities of heat can be obtained from a small quantity of coal. … It should have low ash content since the presence of ash reduces the heating value of coal.
What is proximate and ultimate analysis of fuel?
Fuel characterization concerns with the “analysis” and “energy content of fuel” (also known as calorific value). Fuel analysis comprises of “proximate” and “ultimate”. (A)Proximate analysis: In the proximate analysis, moisture (M), Ash (A) and volatile matter (VM) are determined. Fixed carbon.
How do you analyze coal?
There are two methods to analyze coal which are called proximate analysis and ultimate analysis.
Analysis of Coal
- Measurement of moisture. …
- Measurement of volatile matter. …
- Measurement of carbon and ash. …
- Proximate analysis. …
- Fixed carbon. …
- Volatile matter. …
- Ash content. …
- Moisture content.
What is GCV and NCV of coal?
Gross calorific value (GCV) is the amount of heat released by the complete combustion of a unit of natural gas. … Net Calorific Value (NCV) also known as lower heating value (LHV) or lower calorific value (LCV) is determined by the subtracting the heat of vaporization of the water vapour from the higher heating value.
Is coal a method of analysis?
1.1 This standard (Part 1 ) prescribes the methods of test for coal and coke relating to proximate analysis including determination of moisture under different conditions. … Besides, the laboratory samples to be used for the analysis of coal and coke, special samples are recommended for moisture.