INTRODUCTION. The term coal hydrogenation usually means the addition of hydrogen to coal and to oils derived from coal or from other sources combined with cracking of the raw material.
What is hydrogenation of coal?
Coal or hydrogenation of coal involves raising the atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio. Coal can be converted to liquid and gaseous fuels by direct and indirect processing. Hydrogenation of coal is also called liquefaction of coal. The source of coal is from various coal mines.
What do you mean by hydrogenation?
Hydrogenation is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen and other compounds and elements. Hydrogenation is used in many applications such as the food industry, petrochemical industry and the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry.
What is hydrogenation short answer?
Hydrogenation is a reduction reaction which results in an addition of hydrogen (usually as H2). If an organic compound is hydrogenated, it becomes more “saturated” with hydrogen atoms. The process typically requires the use of a catalyst, since hydrogenation only occurs spontaneously at high temperatures.
What is the pressure applied during hydrogenation of coal?
In the present study catalytic coal hydrogenation under milder conditions (reaction temperature 180–200°C, reaction pressure 18–20 kg/cm3 the coal molecule may break into smaller fragments, i.e., smaller aromatic units with different functional groups.
What is the main reason for coal liquefaction?
Coal liquefaction, any process of turning coal into liquid products resembling crude oil. The two procedures that have been most extensively evaluated are carbonization—heating coal in the absence of air—and hydrogenation—causing coal to react with hydrogen at high pressures, usually in the presence of a catalyst.
What Can coal be converted to?
In addition to its direct use for combustion, coal can be converted to organic gases and liquids, thus allowing the continued use of conventional oil- and gas-fired processes when oil and gas supplies are not available. Currently, there is little commercial coal conversion in the United States.
Is hydrogenation good or bad?
They start out as healthier polyunsaturated fats, but through chemical processing known as hydrogenation, they turn into solid, unhealthy trans fats. Trans fats not only raise LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol) like saturated fat, they also lower HDL (good cholesterol), thereby doubling your risk of heart disease.
What is hydrogenation and its importance?
3 Hydrogenation. Hydrogenation is important for two reasons in the fats and oils industry. It converts the liquid oils into semisolid or plastic fats for special applications, such as in shortenings and margarine, and it improves the oxidative stability of the oil (Dijkstra et al., 2008; Nawar, 1996).
What is the purpose of hydrogenation?
Purpose of hydrogenation
To convert a liquid oil into a solid fat. When solid fats of the right consistency are expensive or not available, hydrogenation, sometimes in combination with other processes such as interesterification or fractionation, may provide a way to produce the desired fat.
How is hydrogenation done?
Hydrogenation is the process where hydrogen atoms bind to the double bond of a compound, facilitating its conversion to a single bond, in the presence of a catalyst. … Hydrogenation is commonly used during the manufacturing of food products where unsaturated fats and oil are converted to saturated fats and oils.
What happens during hydrogenation?
Hydrogenation refers to the treatment of substances with molecular hydrogen (H2), adding pairs of hydrogen atoms to compounds (generally unsaturated compounds). These usually require a catalyst for the reaction to occur under normal conditions of temperature and pressure.
What is the hydrogenation process?
Hydrogenation is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum. The process is commonly employed to reduce or saturate organic compounds.
Which is the best quality of coal?
Anthracite: The highest rank of coal. It is a hard, brittle, and black lustrous coal, often referred to as hard coal, containing a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter.
Which is a not found in coal?
Coal contains a number of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur. When coal is heated in the absence of air, a number of products are obtained. (1) Coke: contains 98 % carbon.
What is the optimum condition of temperature and pressure for H Coal process?
The characteristics of this process  are as follows: (1) the reaction temperature is 430–465°C and the reaction pressure is 17–19 MPa; (2) catalyst is synthetic iron sulfide or natural pyrite; (3) solid–liquid separation using vacuum distillation; (4) circulating solvents hydrogenate separately to improve the …