Anthracite – A hard, black coal containing a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. Anticline – An arch or fold in layers of rock shaped like the crest of a wave. Apex – The top or terminal edge of a vein on surface or its nearest point to the surface.
What is the top of a mine shaft called?
The most visible feature of a traditionally-built mine shaft is the headframe (or winding tower, poppet head or pit head) which stands above the shaft. Depending on the type of hoist used, the top of the headframe will either house a hoist motor or a sheave wheel (with the hoist motor mounted on the ground).
What is a seam in a mine called?
: a bed of coal usually thick enough to be profitably mined.
How deep do coal mines go?
Coal that occurs at depths of 55 to 90 m (180 to 300 ft) are usually deep mined, but in some cases surface mining techniques can be used. For example, some western U.S. coal that occur at depths in excess of 60 m (200 ft) are mined by the open pit methods, due to thickness of the seam 20–25 metres (60–90 feet).
What is a Hewer in coal mines?
The Hewer. The hewer’s job was to mine the coal from the coal seam. He would use hand tools such as a sharp pick. The hewer would have to work in an area no taller than the height of the coal seam, which could be less than 60 cm. The hewer would work with a single candle to enable him to see what he was doing.
Why is a mine called a mine?
A mine is an explosive placed underground or underwater that explodes when disturbed, or when remotely triggered. The term originated from the use of mining to go under the enemy’s city walls.
What are the 4 types of mining?
There are four main methods of mining: underground, surface, placer and in-situ. The type of mining method used depends on the kind of resource that is being targeted for extraction, the deposit’s location below or on the Earth’s surface and the capacity of each method to profitably extract the resource.
What is a pit deputy?
He can be compared to a supervisor, he was responsible for an area of the pit underground. He would walk the roadways (tunnels to non mining folk) and crawl along the coal face where men were working.
What was the usual nickname for a new miner?
In an industry where physical strength is valued, 13 miners were called Big, three who were boxers were known as Boom Boom, Champ and Bear, and a well-liked miner had the nickname Terrific Don MacIsaac.
Is coal mining still dangerous?
Coal mining is still dangerous. In 2010, West Virginia had the worst coal mining disaster in the US in 40 years, when an explosion killed 29 people. … That year, 3,242 people died in coal mining accidents. Coal mines have continued to have fires and explosions, killing hundreds of miners over the years.
Can you find gold in coal?
Gold occurs as palaeoplacers and in hydrothermal deposits. Gold occurrences reflect rapid erosion of the mineralized orogeny and young provenance of sediment in the coal basins. The disposition of the Variscan Orogen through equatorial latitudes made coal an exceptional reservoir for gold.
What is the average lifespan of a coal miner?
The average life expectancy in the coal mines for those starting work at 15 y was found to be 58.91 y and 49.23 y for surface and underground workers respectively. In the coloured/metal mines they were 60.24 y and 56.55 y respectively.
Which coal is the most difficult to mine?
What is gob coal?
A gob pile is a pile built of accumulated spoil, the waste rock removed during coal mining. This waste material is typically composed of shale, as well as smaller quantities of carboniferous shale and various other residues.
What did a putter do in a coal mine?
Putters were underground workers who pushed carts full of coal from the hewers to the sidings where it could be picked up by a driver. Sometimes two boys would work together to push one heavy cart. These young workers who could not push heavy carts by themselves were known as half-marrows.
How much did Coal miners get paid in the 1800s?
His wages are a trifle over $10 a week for six full days. Before the strike of 1900 he was paid in this region $1.70 per day, or $10.20 a week. If the ten per cent raise had been given, as we expected, his wages would be $1.87 per day, or $11.22 per week, or an increase of $1.02 per week.