Surface coal mining involves: removing parts or all of mountaintops to expose buried seams of coal, and. disposing in adjacent valleys the excess: “overburden” (rock above the coal seam), and. “interburden” (rock between coal seams).
What is strip mining for coal?
Strip mining is employed in coal reserves where the overburden is removed in rectangular blocks in plan view called pits or strips. The pits are parallel and adjacent to each other. … In contour or area stripping, the overburden is hauled with different equipment than what digs or removes the overburden.
What is the meaning of Surface Mining?
Surface mining, method of extracting minerals near the surface of the Earth. The three most common types of surface mining are open-pit mining, strip mining, and quarrying. See also mining and coal mining.
What are the two methods used for mining coal?
Surface mining and deep underground mining are the two basic methods of mining. The choice of mining method depends primarily on depth, density, overburden, and thickness of the coal seam; seams relatively close to the surface, at depths less than approximately 55 m (180 ft), are usually surface mined.
What method is used to mine coal?
Surface coal mining generally involves the following sequence of unit operations: (1) clearing the land of trees and vegetation, (2) removing and storing the top layers of the unconsolidated soil (topsoil), (3) drilling the hard strata over the coal seam, (4) fragmenting or blasting the hard strata with explosives, (5) …
What are the 4 types of surface mining?
There are five recognized types of surface mining, each with specific variations depending on the minerals being extracted. These include strip mining, open-pit mining, mountaintop removal, dredging and highwall mining.
What are the 4 types of mining?
There are four main methods of mining: underground, surface, placer and in-situ. The type of mining method used depends on the kind of resource that is being targeted for extraction, the deposit’s location below or on the Earth’s surface and the capacity of each method to profitably extract the resource.
Which type of mine is the most common type used for mining coal?
As one of the most popular methods of coal mining, the surface technique consists of five main forms: strip mining, open-pit mining, mountaintop removal, dredging and highwall mining.
Is coal mining still dangerous?
Coal mining is still dangerous. In 2010, West Virginia had the worst coal mining disaster in the US in 40 years, when an explosion killed 29 people. … That year, 3,242 people died in coal mining accidents. Coal mines have continued to have fires and explosions, killing hundreds of miners over the years.
Why is it bad to mine coal?
Miners are also directly exposed to toxic fumes, coal dust and toxic metals, increasing their risk for fatal lung diseases such as pneumoconiosis and silicosis. The toll on the physical landscape is severe. One of the most serious impacts of coal mining is acid mine drainage.
How is coal mining done today?
Coal miners use giant machines to remove coal from the ground. They use two methods: surface or underground mining. … Surface mining can be used when the coal is buried less than 200 feet underground. In surface mining, giant machines remove the top-soil and layers of rock to expose large beds of coal.
What machines are used in coal mining?
When operating heavy mining machinery, such as excavators, bulldozers, conveyors, belt elevators, and dumpers, dust emissions range from 200 to 3000 kg/t of coal (accounting for dust suppression).
What country has the largest coal reserves?
The top five countries with the largest proven coal reserves
- United States – 249 billion tonnes. …
- Russia – 162 billion tonnes. …
- Australia – 149 billion tonnes. …
- China – 142 billion tonnes. …
- India – 106 billion tonnes.