Coal miners in Appalachia are at risk of developing heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and pneumoconiosis as a result of mining conditions (Hendryx et al., 2008).
What are the environmental concerns in the Appalachian area from coal mining?
The blasting of mountaintops has polluted stream and water supplies have been contaminated by toxic waste from coal processing called slurry ponds. Scientists have noted an increase in respiratory and heart problems among area residents, including lung cancer.
Why is working in a coal mine dangerous?
Working in coal mines is dangerous — miners have to deal with toxic gases, plus the threat of being crushed, drowned, or injured from fires and explosions. Some miners love it.
Is there coal in the Appalachian Mountains?
Although jobs have disappeared, Appalachia keeps producing coal. Since 1970, more than two billion tons of coal have come from the central Appalachian coalfields (A-B). West Virginians mined more in 2010 than in the early 1950s, when employment peaked at nearly six times its current level.
When did coal mining begin in Appalachia?
Though coal was first officially spotted in central Appalachia in the 1700s, major commercial production began in earnest only in the 1870s, after railroads finally burrowed through dense, rolling heave of the Cumberland mountains.
Which of the following is an environmental problem associated with abandoned coal mines?
Why cleaning up abandoned coal mines is so important — and difficult. With coal production at its lowest level in 30 years, abandoned mines around the country are causing major environmental problems. They can catch fire, and debris from them can contaminate the water supply.
Which type of mining is likely the least harmful to the environment?
Placer mining can be less damaging to the environment than surface mines, as the sediment is returned to the water after the minerals have been extracted.
Does mining pay well?
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the average miner in the U.S. earns an hourly wage of $27.62, over the course of a 43.6 hour work week, as of 2012. This amounts to an annual salary of $62,620. However, wages vary based on location and specific job duties.
What is the average age of a coal miner?
Is it dangerous to mine coal?
Miners are also directly exposed to toxic fumes, coal dust and toxic metals, increasing their risk for fatal lung diseases such as pneumoconiosis and silicosis. The toll on the physical landscape is severe. One of the most serious impacts of coal mining is acid mine drainage.
Why are Appalachians so poor?
The region’s rugged terrain and isolation from urban centers has created a distinct culture and resulted in high levels of poverty. A lack of public infrastructure such as highways, developed cities, businesses, and medical services have perpetuated the region’s poor economic performance.
How is coal formed?
Coal is mostly carbon with variable amounts of other elements; chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen. Coal is formed when dead plant matter decays into peat and is converted into coal by the heat and pressure of deep burial over millions of years.
Who owns the coal industry?
In 2018, the production owned by the top ten companies was 71.6% of total US coal production. In 2018, the production owned by the top 23 companies was 87.9% of the total US coal production.
Companies.#1CompanyPeabody EnergyM short tons155.5% of US20.6%NotesChapter 11 bankruptcy 2016, exited 2017Ещё 22 столбца
Is coal strip mining legal?
Legislation in the United States. In the United States, MTR is allowed by section 515(c)(1) of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. Although most coal mining sites must be reclaimed to the land’s pre-mining contour and use, regulatory agencies can issue waivers to allow MTR.
What is strip mining for coal?
Strip mining is employed in coal reserves where the overburden is removed in rectangular blocks in plan view called pits or strips. The pits are parallel and adjacent to each other. … In contour or area stripping, the overburden is hauled with different equipment than what digs or removes the overburden.
Where was the first coal mine in America?
New Brunswick, Canada