Surface mining and deep underground mining are the two main methods of mining coal. Depth, density, and thickness of the coal seam are the factors that are taken into account while selecting the mining method for coal extraction.
What method is used to mine coal?
Surface coal mining generally involves the following sequence of unit operations: (1) clearing the land of trees and vegetation, (2) removing and storing the top layers of the unconsolidated soil (topsoil), (3) drilling the hard strata over the coal seam, (4) fragmenting or blasting the hard strata with explosives, (5) …
What are the two methods used for mining coal?
Surface mining and deep underground mining are the two basic methods of mining. The choice of mining method depends primarily on depth, density, overburden, and thickness of the coal seam; seams relatively close to the surface, at depths less than approximately 55 m (180 ft), are usually surface mined.
What are the main methods of mining?
Open-pit, underwater, and underground mining. These are the three main methods of mining we use to extract our products from the ground. In this Digging Deeper article, we take a look at these different methods and provide a glimpse into what each involves.
Which type of drilling is used in coal mining?
Branch borehole drilling technology is the main technology of directional drilling in coal mine, and also the technical foundation in construction of comb borehole, horizontal multi-branch holes, and directional exploration Page 5 293 Yao Ningping et al. / Procedia Engineering 73 ( 2014 ) 289 – 298 drilling.
Which type of mine is the most common type used for mining coal?
As one of the most popular methods of coal mining, the surface technique consists of five main forms: strip mining, open-pit mining, mountaintop removal, dredging and highwall mining.
What are the four methods of mining?
The American Geosciences web site defines four main mining methods: underground, open surface (pit), placer, and in-situ mining. Underground mines are more expensive and are often used to reach deeper deposits. Surface mines are typically used for more shallow and less valuable deposits.
How dangerous is coal mining?
Working in coal mines is dangerous — miners have to deal with toxic gases, plus the threat of being crushed, drowned, or injured from fires and explosions.
How many types of coal mines are there?
There are three major types of underground coal mining: longwall mining, room-and-pillar mining, and retreat mining.
What are the disadvantages of coal?
The major disadvantage of coal is its negative impact on the environment. Coal-burning energy plants are a major source of air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to carbon monoxide and heavy metals like mercury, the use of coal releases sulfur dioxide, a harmful substance linked to acid rain.
What are the 2 main types of mining?
Mining techniques can be divided into two common excavation types: surface mining and sub-surface (underground) mining. Today, surface mining is much more common, and produces, for example, 85% of minerals (excluding petroleum and natural gas) in the United States, including 98% of metallic ores.
What are the 3 types of mines?
The three most common types of surface mining are open-pit mining, strip mining, and quarrying. See also mining and coal mining.
What type of mining is most harmful to the environment?
Although the effects of coal mining take a long time to impact the environment the burning of coals and fires which can burn up to decades can release flying ash and increase the greenhouse gasses. Specifically strip mining that can destroy landscapes, forests, and wildlife habitats that are near the sites.
How is coal used to make energy?
Coal is primarily used as fuel to generate electric power in the United States. The coal is burned and the heat given off is used to convert water into steam, which drives a turbine. … Finally, coal can be burned to provide heat for individual homes.
What is drilling in mining?
Pathak Dept. of Mining Engineering, IIT, Kharagpur-721302 1 Introduction Drilling is the process of making a hole into a hard surface where the length of the hole is very large compared to the diameter. In the context of mining engineering drilling refers to making holes into a rock mass.
What is coal exploration?
Coal exploration involves finding new coal deposits. It also involves evaluating new or existing deposits to determine the quantity and quality of the coal contained within them, and to identify any geological factors that may affect the recovery and use of the coal concerned.