Metallurgical coal, also known as coking coal, is used to produce coke, the primary source of carbon used in steelmaking. Metallurgical coal differs from thermal coal, which is used for energy and heating, by its carbon content and its coking ability.
Why is coking coal used in steel production?
Coking coal is a key raw material in steel production. As iron occurs only as iron oxides in the earth’s crust, the ores must be converted, or ‘reduced’, using carbon. The primary source of this carbon is coking coal. … Coke reduces iron ore to molten iron saturated with carbon, called hot metal.
Can steel be made without coking coal?
Coking coal is usually bituminous-rank coal with special qualities that are needed in the blast furnace. While an increasing amount of steel is being recycled, there is currently no technology to make steel at scale without using coal.
How is coal used in steel production?
Almost all metallurgical coal is used in coke ovens. The coking process consists of heating coking coal to around 1000-1100ºC in the absence of oxygen to drive off the volatile compounds (pyrolysis). This process results in a hard porous material – coke.
Where is coking coal used?
Coking coal – also known as metallurgical coal – is mainly used in steel production.
What is the raw material needed for steel production?
The three main raw materials used to make pig iron (which is the raw material needed to make steel) for primary steel production in a blast furnace are the processed iron ore, coke (residue left after heating coal in the absence of air, generally containing up to 90% carbon) and limestone (CaCO3) or burnt lime (CaO), …
What is the name for the highest rank coal?
Anthracite. Anthracite is the highest rank coal. It is a black, shiny, hard rock and is not friable. It is low in volatile matter and this makes it difficult to burn in rotary kilns.
What are 4 types of coal?
Coal is classified into four main types, or ranks: anthracite, bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite. The ranking depends on the types and amounts of carbon the coal contains and on the amount of heat energy the coal can produce.
Which is better coal or coke?
Coke is a better fuel because coke produces more heat on burning as compared to coal. Coke has higher calorific value than coal. When equal masses of coke and coal are bunt, coke produces more heat. Also when coke is burnt, smoke is not obtained whereas coal produces smoke on coal.
What is coke from coal used for?
Coke is a grey, hard, and porous fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, made by heating coal or oil in the absence of air—a destructive distillation process. It is an important industrial product, used mainly in iron ore smelting, but also as a fuel in stoves and forges when air pollution is a concern.
What is steel raw material?
Steel is an alloy consisting mostly of iron and less than 2% carbon. Iron ore is, therefore, essential for the production of steel, which in turn is essential in maintaining a strong industrial base. 98% of mined iron ore is used to make steel. Iron ore is mined in about 50 countries.
Which type of coal is used for manufacturing coke?
Is steel a good conductor?
Most metals conduct electricity to a certain extent. Some metals are more highly conductive than others. Copper, Silver, Aluminum, Gold, Steel and Brass are common conductors of electricity.
Why is coal still used?
That’s largely because of the shale gas revolution, which suddenly made natural gas cheaper than coal for generating electricity. … Global coal use continues to rise, especially in developing economies. About 38 percent of global electricity comes from coal, and in many countries it’s a mainstay for industrial uses, too.
Why is coal bad for the environment?
The burning of fossil fuels releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, increasing levels of CO2 and other gasses, trapping heat, and contributing to global climate change. … Coal-fired power plants release more greenhouse gases per unit of energy produced than any other electricity source (1).
What’s the difference between thermal and coking coal?
Thermal coal, also called steaming coal, has a lower energy content and higher moisture and is used to generate electricity. Metallurgical or coking coal has a higher energy content and lower moisture and is used to make iron, steel and other metals.