What is a coal mine tipple?

A tipple is a structure used at a mine to load the extracted product (e.g., coal, ores) for transport, typically into railroad hopper cars. In the United States, tipples have been frequently associated with coal mines, but they have also been used for hard rock mining.

What is a breaker in a coal mine?

A coal breaker is a coal processing plant which breaks coal into various useful sizes. Coal breakers also remove impurities from the coal (typically slate) and deposit them into a culm dump. The coal breaker is a forerunner of the modern coal preparation plant.

What is a tipple boy?

A tipple boy was a worker who worked in the tipple, a structure used at a mine to load coal for transport, typically into railroad hopper cars. Since tipple workers in Hine’s photos were wearing headlamps, it is likely that they often traveled down into the mine.

What is a prop in a coal mine called?

A pit prop or mine prop (British and American usage, respectively) is a length of lumber used to prop up the roofs of tunnels in coal mines. … As coal mining declined in importance and metal supports were used, the term became infrequently used.

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What is the life expectancy of a coal miner?

The average life expectancy in the coal mines for those starting work at 15 y was found to be 58.91 y and 49.23 y for surface and underground workers respectively. In the coloured/metal mines they were 60.24 y and 56.55 y respectively.

How does a coal tipple work?

Basic coal tipples simply load coal into railroad cars. Many tipples had simple screening equipment to sort coal pieces by size before loading. Today, a coal mine facility usually includes a coal preparation plant which washes coal of soil and rock, before loading it for transport to market.

Why is coal breaker work dangerous?

Being a breaker boy was a tough and dangerous job. The sharp stones in the coal would cut up their fingers. The buildings they worked in were filled with coal dust. Many of them developed asthma or lung cancer.

What do you call someone who owns a mine?

A miner is a person who extracts ore, coal, or other mineral from the earth through mining. There are two senses in which the term is used. … In a broader sense, a “miner” is anyone working within a mine, not just a worker at the rock face.

What is a pit deputy?

He can be compared to a supervisor, he was responsible for an area of the pit underground. He would walk the roadways (tunnels to non mining folk) and crawl along the coal face where men were working.

What did a putter do in a coal mine?

Putters were underground workers who pushed carts full of coal from the hewers to the sidings where it could be picked up by a driver. Sometimes two boys would work together to push one heavy cart. These young workers who could not push heavy carts by themselves were known as half-marrows.

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What diseases do coal miners get?

The two main types of pneumoconioses that affect miners are coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP), commonly called black lung, and silicosis. CWP is associated with coal mining, but silicosis can affect workers in many types of mines and quarries, including coal mines.

What percentage of coal miners get black lung?

One in ten underground coal miners who have worked in mines for at least 25 years were identified as having black lung, according to a new report by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) published in the American Journal of Public Health .

Do all coal miners get black lung?

Black lung disease has been identified in coal miners in every coal-mining state at both surface and underground mines.

Coal mine