Legislation in the United States. In the United States, MTR is allowed by section 515(c)(1) of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. Although most coal mining sites must be reclaimed to the land’s pre-mining contour and use, regulatory agencies can issue waivers to allow MTR.
What is strip mining for coal?
Strip mining is employed in coal reserves where the overburden is removed in rectangular blocks in plan view called pits or strips. The pits are parallel and adjacent to each other. … In contour or area stripping, the overburden is hauled with different equipment than what digs or removes the overburden.
Is strip mining bad?
Strip mining destroys landscapes, forests and wildlife habitats at the site of the mine when trees, plants, and topsoil are cleared from the mining area. This in turn leads to soil erosion and destruction of agricultural land. When rain washes the loosened top soil into streams, sediments pollute waterways.
Is coal mining the most dangerous job?
Coal mining has gotten safer over the past 30 years, according to United Mine Workers spokesman Phil Smith, but much of the reduction in fatal accidents is because production has shifted above ground to strip and mountain-top-removal mining. Coal is inherently more dangerous than metal mining, said Smith.
Does coal come from mines?
Coal can be extracted from the earth either by surface mining or underground mining. Once coal has been extracted, it can be used directly (for heating and industrial processes) or to fuel power plants for electricity. If coal is less than 61 meters (200 feet) underground, it can be extracted through surface mining.
What is the most common use for coal?
The most significant uses of coal are in electricity generation, steel production, cement manufacturing and as a liquid fuel. Different types of coal have different uses. Steam coal – also known as thermal coal – is mainly used in power generation.
What are the 4 types of mining?
There are four main methods of mining: underground, surface, placer and in-situ. The type of mining method used depends on the kind of resource that is being targeted for extraction, the deposit’s location below or on the Earth’s surface and the capacity of each method to profitably extract the resource.
What are the pros and cons of strip mining?
List of Pros of Strip Mining
- It is much more efficient compared to underground mining. Those who advocate for strip mining believe that the recovery rate of materials is higher using the method. …
- It is lower in cost. …
- It is safer than underground mining. …
- It is hazardous to human health. …
- It is harmful to the environment.
Why is mining bad?
Across the world, mining contributes to erosion, sinkholes, deforestation, loss of biodiversity, significant use of water resources, dammed rivers and ponded waters, wastewater disposal issues, acid mine drainage and contamination of soil, ground and surface water, all of which can lead to health issues in local …
How does mining affect humans?
Health impacts due to inhalation of PM emission from surface mines—medical evidence. PM exposure to surface mining workers lead to some common diseases such as asthma, black lungs, silicosis, asbestosis, inflammation, bauxite fibrosis and siderosis (Singh et al., 2009).
How many miners die a year?
What are the riskiest jobs?
Here’s a look at the 10 most dangerous jobs in America, based on BLS data:
- Logging workers.
- Fishers and related fishing workers. …
- Aircraft pilots and flight engineers. …
- Roofers. …
- Refuse and recyclable materials collectors. …
- Driver/sales workers and truck drivers. …
- Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural workers. …
What’s the life expectancy of a coal miner?
The average life expectancy in the coal mines for those starting work at 15 y was found to be 58.91 y and 49.23 y for surface and underground workers respectively. In the coloured/metal mines they were 60.24 y and 56.55 y respectively.
What are the 4 types of coal?
Coal is classified into four main types, or ranks: anthracite, bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite.
What are the disadvantages of coal?
The major disadvantage of coal is its negative impact on the environment. Coal-burning energy plants are a major source of air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to carbon monoxide and heavy metals like mercury, the use of coal releases sulfur dioxide, a harmful substance linked to acid rain.
Is coal mining still dangerous?
Coal mining is still dangerous. In 2010, West Virginia had the worst coal mining disaster in the US in 40 years, when an explosion killed 29 people. … That year, 3,242 people died in coal mining accidents. Coal mines have continued to have fires and explosions, killing hundreds of miners over the years.