Drift mining is either the mining of an ore deposit by underground methods, or the working of coal seams accessed by adits driven into the surface outcrop of the coal bed. … Drift is a more general mining term, meaning a near-horizontal passageway in a mine, following the bed (of coal, for instance) or vein of ore.
What is tunnel drift?
All horizontal or subhorizontal development openings made in a mine have the generic name of drift. These are simply tunnels made in the rock, with a size and shape depending on their use—for example, haulage, ventilation, or exploration.
What does coal mine mean?
Coal mining, extraction of coal deposits from the surface of Earth and from underground. coal mine.
What is a prop in a coal mine called?
A pit prop or mine prop (British and American usage, respectively) is a length of lumber used to prop up the roofs of tunnels in coal mines. … As coal mining declined in importance and metal supports were used, the term became infrequently used.
What is a horizontal mine shaft called?
What is horizontal mining?
A system of mine development that is suitable for inclined, and perhaps faulted, coal seams. Main stone headings are driven, at predetermined levels, from the winding shaft to intersect and gain access to the seams to be developed. Also called horizontal mining; continental mining. …
Is coal mining still dangerous?
Coal mining is still dangerous. In 2010, West Virginia had the worst coal mining disaster in the US in 40 years, when an explosion killed 29 people. … That year, 3,242 people died in coal mining accidents. Coal mines have continued to have fires and explosions, killing hundreds of miners over the years.
Why is coal mining bad?
Along with adding to greenhouse gas pollution, burning coal emits toxic and carcinogenic substances into our air, water and land, severely affecting the health of miners, workers and surrounding communities.
How deep do coal mines go?
Coal that occurs at depths of 55 to 90 m (180 to 300 ft) are usually deep mined, but in some cases surface mining techniques can be used. For example, some western U.S. coal that occur at depths in excess of 60 m (200 ft) are mined by the open pit methods, due to thickness of the seam 20–25 metres (60–90 feet).
What do you call someone who owns a mine?
A miner is a person who extracts ore, coal, or other mineral from the earth through mining. There are two senses in which the term is used. … In a broader sense, a “miner” is anyone working within a mine, not just a worker at the rock face.
What is a pit deputy?
He can be compared to a supervisor, he was responsible for an area of the pit underground. He would walk the roadways (tunnels to non mining folk) and crawl along the coal face where men were working.
What did a putter do in a coal mine?
Putters were underground workers who pushed carts full of coal from the hewers to the sidings where it could be picked up by a driver. Sometimes two boys would work together to push one heavy cart. These young workers who could not push heavy carts by themselves were known as half-marrows.
What are the 4 types of mining?
There are four main methods of mining: underground, surface, placer and in-situ. The type of mining method used depends on the kind of resource that is being targeted for extraction, the deposit’s location below or on the Earth’s surface and the capacity of each method to profitably extract the resource.
Why is a mine called a mine?
A mine is an explosive placed underground or underwater that explodes when disturbed, or when remotely triggered. The term originated from the use of mining to go under the enemy’s city walls.
What does sinking a pit mean?
Shaft mining or shaft sinking is excavating a vertical or near-vertical tunnel from the top down, where there is initially no access to the bottom. … Historically mine shaft sinking has been among the most dangerous of all the mining occupations and the preserve of mining contractors called sinkers.